Archive for Prosinec, 2011

Elemental LED REACH Program Announces New Partnership with the City of Richmond, CA

Pátek, Prosinec 23rd, 2011

Elemental LED, A San Francisco Bay Area based LED lighting company, is expanding the REACH (Reduce Energy And Contribute to Humanity) program by partnering with the city of Richmond, CA.

Elemental LED developed REACH to help promote energy conservation in the Bay Area community. To kickoff the new partnership, two weeks ago REACH conducted a lighting science and energy conservation workshop for the students of the RichmondBUILD green job-training academy.

Established in April 2007, the RichmondBUILD Pre-Apprenticeship Construction Skills and Green Jobs Training Academy creates employment and career opportunities for Richmond residents and works to reduce violence in the Richmond community. The 14-week intensive program includes training in over 12 skill areas including basic electrical, basic welding, eco literacy and solar panel installation.

RichmondBUILD has received national and international recognition for its success in creating green jobs and putting unemployed California residents back to work. To date the program’s graduates have a 90% placement rate with an average wage of $18.33 and hour. Awards have included the 2007 FBI Director’s Community Leadership Award and the Conservation Champion Award by Senator Barbara Boxer.

On November 29th, REACH co-hosted a lighting science and application workshop with Energy Conservation Options (ECO) a local green contractor at the RichmondBUILD training facility. Fifteen students attended the workshop and learned about energy efficient LED lighting technology, the developmental history of lighting, commonly used types of LED lighting for retrofits, practical knowledge of how to engage customers and tools to land a job with a green contractor.

Elemental LED Lighting Application Specialist Tara Bowerman and REACH Program Director Michael Gutman gave a presentation on the technical terms used for retrofit and new lighting projects. “Terms like Kelvin, CRI, lighting temperature, lumens and foot candles are all very important when trying to decide the right type of lighting for specific applications,” says Gutman.

Dahlia Moodie, President of ECO, began the workshop by presenting on the inefficient lighting technology of the past that is currently being replaced by energy efficient lighting. Moodie also provided the students with valuable information in a one-on-one format about running a contracting business.

REACH donated an LED lighting display to the RichmondBUILD program where students can play with different types of LED lights. The display resides in the RichmondBUILD training facility for the public to utilize.

REACH is collaborating with the City of Richmond on a donation of LED lights to the Richmond Public Library Main Branch, and more workshops with RichmondBUILD are currently underway.

How larger regional aircraft are upscaling interiors

Čtvrtek, Prosinec 22nd, 2011

Regional aircraft cabins are undergoing extreme makeovers to look and feel more like their mainline brethren. Dual-class and triple-class configurations, thoroughly refreshed interiors with new LED lighting, and lightweight slim-line seats are only some of the features emerging on regional jets and turboprops manufactured by ATR and Bombardier and industry newcomers.

Even in-flight connectivity is making its debut in the regional sector. Some 223 regional aircraft operating as Delta Connection are being fitted with Gogo’s air-to-ground-based airborne internet system, as part of Delta Air Lines’ broader plan to fit its entire domestic fleet with the system.

A confluence of factors is driving the transformation of regional cabins. As pilot scope clauses have loosened, regional aircraft have grown in size. With 70-plus seaters now a fixture in the skies, airlines have more leeway in configuring their aircraft.

At the same time, major carriers have accepted they must offer a seamless in-flight product across fleet types if they want to meet the demands of their most exacting customers, frequent flyers and business travellers.

“With regional aircraft, historically we didn’t have the ability to deliver a [multi-class service] economically so, for example, it’s not really easy to get a first-class seat into a 19-seat turboprop without losing a whole lot of economy class seats.

But as regional aircraft have evolved [and grown] over time, the tube has gotten bigger, and that means you can configure them in different combinations,” says Mark Bergsrud, senior vice-president of marketing at United-Continental, which offers first class, an economy plus product, and economy class on all Bombardier CRJ700 and Embraer 170 regional aircraft operating under the United Express banner.

“As a marketing person, these [regional] partners of ours are extensions of our products and our brands and we need them to adhere to our product specifications and standards because our customers expect that. Getting on a United Express airplane with a livery that looks like United, with a United ticket bought with Mileage Plus [frequent flyer] miles, they need to have their product expectations matched,” adds Bergsrud.

United-Continental is extending its upgrade strategy to large turboprops. During the coming months, the 30 Bombardier Q400 turboprops operated by Colgan Air on behalf of United-Continental will be retrofitted to include a three-abreast first class cabin with 36in (90cm) seat pitch, as well as an economy plus section offering 34in pitch and economy with 30in pitch, says Gordon Pratt, director of Q programme management at Bombardier. “It spells seamless service big time.”

However, a refurbishment plan has not been defined for the 50-seat regional jets operated for the Star Alliance member. SkyWest, together with the ExpressJet operation it acquired last year, flies a great many 50-seaters on behalf of United-Continental, but “has not heard a lot about what is going to be delivered on the regional level yet”, says SkyWest vice-president of in-flight Sonya Wolford, noting that United-Continental has been focused on its own merger integration.

The Latest Wave of LEED Buildings: Homeless Shelters

Středa, Prosinec 21st, 2011

As anyone who has volunteered  in a soup kitchen can attest, they’re typically not a place that you want to spend an extended amount of time. Homeless shelters are designed as a stop-gap; a helping but temporary hand for those in need until they can get their feet back on the ground.

Unfortunately, the majority of these kitchens/dormitories across the country have bleak environs. Whether they are government or independently run, budgets are small. The buildings themselves are often reused space from churches or warehouses that have already out-served their initial purpose. Under deathly fluorescent light, on broken-springed mattresses in a windowless room, finding hope can be a struggle.

It wasn’t until a friend sent me a story about a new homeless shelter opening in Charleston, South Carolina that I stopped and thought about any of this. My first reaction after a little more research was, “Why does any homeless shelter have a $6 million building budget?”

Then I checked myself. Those of us in the green community constantly eschew the virtues of an upfront investment that pays itself back in time through energy savings. Why shouldn’t a homeless shelter follow those same principles? Furthermore, (hopefully) the generally bright decor of most green buildings serves as an inspiration and instills pride and motivation in those who stay there.

Charleston’s new shelter, is being built and will be operated by nonprofit Crisis Ministries. The structure will feature rainwater collection, LED lighting and vaulted ceilings with carefully placed windows and awnings to maximize winter heating and summer cooling. The building committee is shooting for a silver LEED certification for the 28,000 square foot building.

It turns out Charleston isn’t home to the first shelter to go green. The Austin Resource Center for the Homeless boasts the distinction of being the first LEED-certified shelter. The $5 million, 25,000 square foot building was built largely using concrete mixes with flyash instead of Portland cement.

Up the road in Dallas, a shelter called ‘The Bridge’ has already demonstrated the tangible positive effects a green approach can have. Lauded by the American Institute of Architects with their 2009 National Housing Award, the crime rate in the surrounding neighborhood is down 18 percent since its 2008 opening.

Built atop an unused brownfield site in central Dallas, the building features a green roof over the dining room, a central atrium courtyard and graywater recycling. Perhaps most significant are the numerous art installations throughout the building, created by local artists. By bringing culture and creativity into the shelter, The Bridge constantly emphasizes the connection its users have with society outside, and vice versa.

Other progressive states like Colorado and California have also led the charge. The Boulder Shelter for the Homeless includes an array of rooftop solar panels, numerous skylights, and the same windows, plumbing, and appliances that any green-minded builder would include in their own home. Wooden beams and handrails are a stark contrast to the cold concrete of most urban shelters.

Guy-Concordia metro station gets new look

Úterý, Prosinec 20th, 2011

The Guy-Concordia metro station will undergo major renovations in the new year as part of work being undertaken by the Societe de transport de Montreal (STM). Working closely with the STM, Concordia will also be implementing changes of its own at the Guy-Metro (GM) Building portion of the station.

The St-Mathieu Street entrance, located at 1801 De Maisonneuve Blvd. W., will benefit from a complete overhaul to its infrastructure from March to August 2012, with metro users being re-routed to the entrance at 1445 Guy Street (corner of De Maisonneuve Boulevard).

The STM will be adding four turnstiles at the Guy Street entrance in January to accommodate the increased flow of traffic resulting from the closure of the St-Mathieu Street entrance. Concurrently, Concordia will be adding extensive new signage and lighting to the area.

“We’re taking advantage of the fact that the STM is renovating to bring more light, visibility and directional signage to the university,” says Luis Fernandez, project manager for Facilities Management at Concordia.

The renovations, which will take place nights, involves the addition of a backlit Concordia University logo that will cover much of the ceiling in the GM Building portion of the station. The sign will include a large, fluid burgundy ribbon that will travel from the Engineering, Computer Science and Visual Arts Integrated Complex through the GM Building basement, and along the tunnel leading to the Henry F. Hall and J.W. McConnell Library buildings.

“The ribbon will tie the different buildings together and enhance the portal to Concordia,” says Fernandez, adding that it will also provide a source of much-need lighting in the metro area.

Additional lighted glass panels will be added in several key areas throughout the metro and tunnel areas to aid visitors in finding their way through Concordia’s network of buildings.

Renovation work at the St-Mathieu Street entrance will include new flooring, ceilings, walls, lighting, as well as sprinkler and electrical systems. The escalators will undergo an overhaul and motorized doors will be added to the station’s entrance/exit. This work represents the first major renovations performed to the station since its construction in 1967.

Rejean Messier, project director for the STM, says the St-Mathieu Street entrance, which is affected by water infiltration, was identified as a “priority station” in the STM’s overall plan to renovate four to five stations per year over the next five to six years.

Once the work at the St-Mathieu Street entrance is complete, similar renovations will commence at the Guy Street entrance.

An illuminating tour

Pondělí, Prosinec 19th, 2011

If Jude Whalen had his way, he’d take the bus every day.

Because bus rides are the 2-year-old’s special treat, mom Jean Whalen makes sure they climb aboard on the one day each year when “Santa’s lights” are on the route.

“I think it’s just a really fun way to get in the holiday spirit,” says Whalen, 40.

The Whalens of Ashland were among more than 90 people Friday who viewed some of East Medford’s most beloved displays of holiday lights from the seats of three Rogue Valley Transportation District buses. The tour has been an RVTD tradition since 2005, when senior planner Paige Townsend traced the buses’ route using the newspaper’s online interactive map of holiday lights in the valley.

“I just remember as a kid always driving around with my parents the week before Christmas,” says Townsend. “I thought, wouldn’t it be nice if we could do the driving … let people enjoy the holiday season a little bit more.”

The city of Medford joined the effort, promoting the tour in its recreation guide. RVTD provides the buses at its own cost, while the city charges a $3 registration fee per person and provides the pickup and drop-off point at west Medford’s Santo Community Center.

“It’s been getting booked every year,” says Townsend. “Usually, we see entire families.”

Like most tour participants, Melanie Schorsch isn’t a regular RVTD rider, but she is a connoisseur of local holiday-lights displays.

When she saw an announcement for RVTD’s event last year, she added it to her itinerary that includes several nights in December of driving around Medford, Central Point and Eagle Point with friends.

“This is a big thing to me,” says the 51-year-old Medford native. “The displays have gotten a lot better.”

Among her favorites are some of the more unusual, seasonal shows featured in the newspaper over the years, such as retired Hedrick Middle School band teacher Ron Bartlett, who greets visitors to his East Jackson Street home with a saxophone serenade while wearing a Santa Claus suit.

She also lauds the “elf-man” house on Medford’s Bristol Drive, saying that she could visit four or five times and still marvel at the figurines handmade by Don Schmidt.

“You can’t even see a blade of grass in his yard,” says Schorsch.

RVTD can’t feature all the city’s highlights on its hour-long tour but tries to give riders the most glitz per glance.

“Greystone Court and then the Candy Cane Lane,” says Townsend. “We always drive through those areas.”

The program also adds a bit of education to its Christmas cheer, giving RVTD one more opportunity to reach out to residents who have no experience with the bus.

“It’s clean … it’s modern,” says Townsend, explaining that 16 buses in RVTD’s fleet of 23 run on compressed natural gas. The buses provides more than a million trips per year — 4,500 per day — between Medford, Jacksonville, Central Point, White City, Eagle Point, Phoenix, Talent, Ashland and the airport.

LCD, LED and plasma televisions: which is for you?

Pátek, Prosinec 16th, 2011

As modern televisions look very similar to each other with pleasing to the eye, shiny and stream lined designs, you could be forgiven for thinking that LCD, LED and plasma TVs are all the same. They even have similar features such as the ability to access the Internet or display photos.

But despite their similarities and as televisions are sizeable investments, knowing what you want from your television is essential to buying the right model. With the more simple characteristics of the available televisions seeming to be so alike, which set is the best for you?

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) televisions have back lamps behind the screen which shine white light through millions of coloured liquid crystals to create a black and coloured picture. LCD TVs are perfect for the smaller to average sized screens (typically up to 32 inches) as the technology really suits the display, with images appearing sharper and clearer. It is only recently that the LCD TV has expanded beyond the 32-inch option with many manufacturers now providing models over 40 inches.

As well as using less energy than the plasma TV, the LCD also produces less glare and is therefore more suited to natural daylight conditions meaning the need to close the curtains to hide your early-evening soaps from the late afternoon sun is greatly reduced.

Light Emitting Diode (LED) televisions work very much the same way as the more common LCD option. The LED TV is relatively new to the market in comparison to the plasma and LCD, however it has gained a fast following for its energy efficiency and size. An LED TV can be much slimmer than the standard LCD or plasma TV due to its backlight structure that separates it from the crowd. Traditionally, televisions had large back lamps used to light the screen, LED televisions offer two alternatives:

1. The back lamps which usually feature are substituted for lots of tiny LED lights

2. The back lamp format is removed completely and small LED lights are used around the sides of the screen, creating what is called an Edge LED TV.

Although many buyers are opting for LCD or LED televisions, the plasma TV remains an old favourite. The plasma TV works as mini fluorescent tubes are lit by a stream of ultra-violet light which hits various dots of colour to create an image. This process takes place between two pieces of glass, which causes the infamous plasma TV glare.

Sleek and stylish, Panasonic are considered the authority on this type of HDTV but plenty of other manufacturers still produce this breed of box, as well as concentrating on LCD and LED alternatives.

This is due to the fact that plasma TVs are able to produce deeper blacks and stronger colours as well as a quicker image response time in comparison to LCD and LED TVs. This also puts the plasma TV at an advantage for the next generation of home entertainment: 3DTV.

Light sculpture to add new luster to Bay Bridge

Středa, Prosinec 14th, 2011

A pioneering artist plans to turn the western span of the Bay Bridge into the region’s biggest light sculpture with 25,000 bulbs flickering from its cables in sequences inspired by ebbs and flows of the Bay environment.

Leo Villareal, who has exhibited light sculptures at the National Gallery of Art and other major museums, already has mapped out a framework for computer software to operate his network of LED lights.

The project needs approval from Caltrans, but the toughest challenge could be raising $7 million in private donations needed for the project. Arts supporters on Tuesday kicked off a fund raising drive, saying they hope to start the four-month-long light installation in spring, and keep the sculpture lighted at night for two years.

The 25,000 white lights will shine, flicker and dim in sequences controlled by software Villareal is writing to reflect the moods and personality of the Bay.

“The bridge has inspired me,” he said. “This project is an outgrowth over talks about how to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the bridge this year.”

Villareal said he wants his light sculpture to enhance and amplify the natural beauty of the bridge architecture and the motions of the traffic on the structure and the wind, water and waves around it.

“These are not like Las Vegas lights where you go ‘I recognize that shape.’ It’s abstract,” Villareal, a New York-based artist, said Tuesday in San Francisco. “My main interest is to create a focal point for the community that is an experience that everyone can share, that will highlight this magnificent location, and bring something new to it.”

Before work can begin, Caltrans must grant permits ensuring that the lights won’t damage the bridge, block traffic, or disrupt drivers with distractions

“From what we have seen, it appears they will be able to meet those requirements,” said Caltrans spokesman Bart Ney. “This is a very detailed and serious plan.”

The 1-inch LED lights will be placed on the outside of bridge cables so they won’t be visible to bridge drivers and distract them, Ney said.

Laborers secured by harnesses will attach the lights to bridge cables at night to minimize disruptions to the 280,000 vehicles a day that cross the bridge, he added.

Caltrans has a program to consider proposed public art programs on soundwalls and other structures, but nothing of this scope has been proposed on a bridge, Ney said.

A necklace of lights was installed across the Bay Bridge in the 1980s, but it is permanent, unlike the light sculpture that will be removed after two years, said Ben Davis of the nonprofit Illuminate the Arts. one of the key light sculpture organizers.

Villareal, who lived in the Bay Area from 1994 to 1997, agreed to take on the project and develop the software to control the timing, sequence and intensity for each of the LED bulbs.

The development of the low-energy LED lights has made it practical to do large scale light sculptures that consume only a few dollars per day of energy, Villareal said.

An Efficient Holiday Season: Decorating Edition

Úterý, Prosinec 13th, 2011

Over the last couple weeks, I’ve shared with you some tips and tricks for minimizing the energy impact of your holiday cooking exploits and your shopping and gift giving activities. However, I’ve not yet touched on the aesthetics of the season.

No winter season is complete without the ornamental lights, or the cheerful air of holiday scents and decorations inside and outside your home. So today I’m going to share with you a few ways that you might be able to save some energy this holiday season, while still being able to make your home bright and festive for those relatives and guests you’re looking forward to entertaining.

When putting up lights, choose more efficient holiday lighting options.  The other day, John Wilson, SACE’s Research Director, shared with you his experience with LED lighting options for the home. In addition to using LEDs for everyday use, however, you can also switch over to more efficient LEDs light strings for your holiday decorating options.

According to Ameren Illinois, if all light strings purchased this year were Energy Star qualified, the electricity saved would equal that used by over 70,000 single-family households. Investing in LEDs can help you save money in the long-run too, since the bulbs or strings won’t need replacing every few years; one study by Consumer Reports stated that they had the same sets of LED lights burning for over 4,000 hours, without a single failure. And, you won’t have to waste hours searching for the one burnt out light bulb that’s keeping an entire string of lights from working properly.

Use timers on your lights so that you have less chores to worry about. It’s hard to remember to turn off outside lights at the right time, or turn off the tree when you aren’t going to be in the room. Putting timers on your holiday decorations will ensure that they aren’t using energy when there’s no one around to enjoy it. And, it will be one less thing you have to remember to do when you’re cleaning up after all the festivities.

Or, opt for non-electric decorations instead of lights. Traditional candles are just as beautiful as accent lighting, if not more so. Plus, if you’re a fan of scented candles, certain smells might be able to add just the right feel to your holiday festivities. Decorate your mantle with a few when guests are over, or light your walkway with them instead of using light strings; you’ll get that extra holiday glow, without that extra energy cost. Just make sure to pay attention to the flames, and follow your standard fire safety precautions.

For my sons, niece, and a couple of nephews — all of whom work long hours at a desk — I”m thinking of Home Depot’s three-way EcoSmart Soft White CFL. EcoSmart also offers an omni-directional LED bulb that casts a nice sharp light for reading. (A definite possibility for the business grad student poring over all those problem sets.)

For a niece who works in retail and needs to look good on the floor, I’m deciding between the EcoSmart G25, a 40-watt-equivalent, globe-type CFL bulb in soft white ($10 for two) and a standard halogen bulb.Halogens throw off light on the warmer end of the color spectrum and in all directions — qualities that work well in warm-hued bathroom settings.

Try these new home-brightening gifts

Pátek, Prosinec 9th, 2011

As you decorate and shop for gifts this holiday season, check out these options:

Solar-powered rock star. The rock spotlight is a energy-efficient way to brighten up your nighttime garden. The spotlight is solar powered, so you can place it in any sunny spot without having to hassle with extension cords and power outlets. The solar panels charge the rechargeable batteries (which are included). The energy-efficient white LEDs will then light up at night. But wait, there’s more. The spotlight also has a hidden compartment where you can store spare keys.

Gift keeps on giving. The glass globe tillandsia terrarium is an attractive living arrangement for a kitchen, covered porch or anywhere there is indirect light. It can even be hung as an ornament on a Christmas tree and then placed elsewhere for year-round enjoyment. Inside the glass globe are three lovely tillandsia plants: a red Capitata Select, a feathery green Tillandsia Ionantha and a silver-gray Harrisii. The glass globe, which measures 6 inches in diameter, has a 2-inch front opening to remove the plants for watering. Just soak the easy-to-care-for plants in water once a week to ensure their optimum health.

Snowman goes high-tech. The snowman mosaic lantern is cheery and festive during winter days; when night rolls around, simply turn the mosaic snowman over and turn on the built-in LED light. Handcrafted with mosaic tiles, the color-changing Snowman is finished with iron top hat, complete a with lantern handle.

Old world meets new world. Each rustic winter lantern is crafted of ornate metalwork for timeless appeal.Inside is a battery-powered flameless ivory resin pillar candlethat is completely dripless, pet-safe, kid-friendly and waterproof. The candle looks real, but it has high-tech features including a timer that will automatically turn the “flame” on for 4 or 8 hours each evening. Shown is the classic oil-rubbed bronze finish, it is also available in white. The lantern measures 4 3/4 inches wide, 4 3/4 inches deep and 12 inches high.

Make time-lapse videos. Looking for the perfect gift for a high-tech junkie who already has every high-tech gadget? The TimelapseCam 8.0 offers an easy way to showcase all types of events and projects from beginning to end. The innovative, high-resolution digital camera takes photos at set time intervals and then automatically converts them to time lapse videos. The videos can be used to showcase everything from decorating a Christmas tree or making a snowman to giving the dog a bath or documenting a home improvement project from start to finish. These videos can be shared among friends and family - and even posted on social networking sites such as YouTube and Facebook.

Solar Christmas lights. The festive look of holiday lighting is now possible without electrical outlets and ugly extension cords. Solar Light Strands use ultra-efficient LED lights, not old-fashioned incandescent bulbs. LED Solar Light Strands save energy because they are powered by the sun. They offer lots of design options, such as lighting up a tree that is hundreds of feet from the nearest electrical outlet. LED Solar Light Strands come in two lengths, 50 or 102 bright LEDS. Each strand has seven different blinking settings. These lights can also be used year-round for patio and deck accents.

The Pay-Off

Čtvrtek, Prosinec 8th, 2011

Just how quickly can a new lighting system pay itself off? Well, it depends on a number of variables unique to a given manufacturing facility, such as the need for a backend retrofit as opposed to a simple re-lamp. In simple terms, Callham says with CFLs most companies see a complete ROI in two or three years.

Other technologies, such as LEDs, could offer more substantial benefits, depending on how they’re used. Callham says that one of the benefits of using LEDs, for example, is integrating them into other energy-saving systems, such as motion sensors that turn lights on only when a worker is present, or smart-dimming sensors that gauge the amount of natural light coming into the plant and shine only the necessary amount of artificial light,reducing electrical load to just a few watts.

And for those who doubt the efficacy of these lighting programs, it’s important to note that lighting has long been the lowest-hanging fruit in “green” or sustainable facilities operations. The figures that Callham mentioned aren’t just marketing-speak with a little fudging to make them more appealing, and the high efficiency
of new lighting technologies is undeniable.

By upgrading to CFL, HID, or LED lighting technologies, manufacturers will generally protect themselves from the EISA mandates planned for the end of the decade. And if you ask Callham, it’s a wonder that more companies haven’t made these upgrades already. He says, “With lighting, when you calculate the utilities incentives to take some energy off the grid, you’re talking about paybacks of 50 percent. I defy anyone to find a 50 percent return somewhere else that isn’t related to their production.”

Manufacturers can receive additional benefits from not waiting in the form of savings from the power utility company. As mentioned before, one part of EISA is to reduce load on the nation’s electrical grid, and even though power utilities love those monthly payments, they do have something to gain in keeping loads to a
minimum, especially during those warm summer months. Many utilities have incentive programs for companies who are able to reduce their needs due to investment in energy-efficient equipment.

For example, a manufacturer in Wisconsin, can be rebated $25 for each LED fixture purchased, and can work with a Focus on Energy agent to get rebates as large as $500,000 based on energy efficiency investments. If the company doesn’t have the necessary capital to retrofit their plant, they can get loans up to $100,000 from the local utilities. Depending on one’s state, the oftentimes frightening initial investment can be partially offset by these incentives, and will certainly help the ROI reach parity as soon as possible.

In addition, many have spoken out about the potential dangers of CFLs, which contain mercury, a toxic chemical that could prove to be dangerous if a lamp is broken on the plant floor. Others have said that CFLs and LEDs aren’t capable of producing the kind of light temperature (that yellow glow, compared to white CFLs or LEDs) they desire.

Manufacturing, as a conduit between American manufacturers and the news that affects them most, has heard these arguments. In the past, our readers have been vocal about the desire for choice, even if it’s more expensive in the long-haul. Callham has heard these concerns, too. He says, “I think the resistance is to the mandate itself, not the financial benefit. I think when someone’s compelled to do something, they’re going to work against that mandate. That’s human nature.”